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Sample Translations (French to English and Spanish to English)

TOURISME : TEXTE FRANÇAIS

Les îles Galápagos sont un archipel de l'Équateur situé dans l'est de l'océan Pacifique, à la latitude de l'équateur. L'île Isabela, la plus vaste, se trouve à quelque 1 102 km des côtes équatoriennes. Une distance de 929 km sépare le continent de la plus orientale des îles, San Cristóbal. L'archipel se compose d'une quarantaine d'îles volcaniques, il forme une province de l'Équateur depuis 1832. Il accueille le parc national des Galápagos et la réserve marine des Galápagos qui constituent un site du patrimoine mondial de l'Unesco.

Bien que des expéditions affirment avoir trouvé des traces de campements humains anciens, les îles Galápagos étaient inhabitées à l'époque où elles furent explorées par les Espagnols en 1535. Au cours des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, l'archipel devint un lieu de rendez-vous pour les pirates et les boucaniers. Les navires de guerre anglais et américains, ainsi que les baleiniers, accostèrent encore souvent aux îles Galápagos au XIXe siècle.

En 1835, Charles Darwin, naturaliste britannique, y étudia la diversité des espèces présentes. Ce n'est pas, contrairement à l'opinion courante, dans l'archipel qu'il commença à douter du créationnisme, mais ses observations lui permirent, plus tard, d'argumenter sa fameuse étude sur l'évolution et la sélection naturelle publiée en 1859.

L'Équateur a officiellement annexé l'archipel des îles Galápagos en 1832. Environ un siècle plus tard, les îles n'étaient habitées que par quelques colons et ont été utilisées en tant que colonies pénitentiaires, qui furent fermées en 1959.

L'archipel est officiellement devenu un parc national en 1959. Le tourisme organisé a commencé vers la fin des années 1960 ; plusieurs dizaines de milliers de personnes visitent aujourd'hui les îles chaque année.

L'archipel est constitué de 48 îles et de rochers. La plupart de ces sites sont excellents pour l'apnée, la plongée dérivante et sur tombants ainsi que pour la plongée de nuit.

Les îles Galápagos offrent un climat tropical sec et sans chaleur excessive. On y distingue toutefois deux saisons : de janvier à mai, une saison chaude (23 à 30 °C) avec quelques averses et, de juin à septembre, une saison froide (19 à 20 °C) assez sèche.

La faune est unique dans le parc national, chaque île renferme sa faune spécifique. L'archipel abrite 58 espèces d'oiseaux dont 28 sont endémiques, des variétés de reptiles uniques, dont les tortues géantes ou les iguanes terrestres et les iguanes marins.

La faune sous-marine, protégée par la réserve marine des Galápagos, est également exceptionnelle de diversité, comprenant, outre l'iguane marin, près de 300 espèces de poissons (dont des requins des Galápagos), de petits mammifères (otarie des Galápagos, otarie à fourrure) et des cétacés, (baleine à bosse notamment).

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TOURISM: ENGLISH TEXT (US spelling)

The Galapagos Islands are an Ecuadorian archipelago located on the equator in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Isabela, the largest island, is approximately 685 miles off the Ecuadorian coast and 577 miles separate the continent from the easternmost island, San Cristobal. The archipelago is made up of about 40 volcanic islands and has been a province of Ecuador since 1832. It contains the Galapagos National Park and the Galapagos marine reserve, which together are a UNESCO world heritage site.

Although some expeditions claim having discovered traces of ancient human encampments, the Galapagos Islands were inhabited during Spanish exploration in 1535. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the archipelago became a popular meeting place for pirates and buccaneers. British and American warships, as well as whaleboats, often stopped at the Galapagos Islands in the 19th century.

In 1835, Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, studied the diversity of species here. Contrary to public opinion, it was not at this archipelago that he began to doubt creationism, but his observations did allow him later to defend his famous Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, published in 1859.


Ecuador officially annexed the Galapagos Islands archipelago in 1832. About a century later, the islands were only inhabited by a few colonials and were used as penal colonies. However, these were closed in 1959.

The archipelago officially became a national park in 1959. Organized tourism began toward the end of the 1960s; today, several tens of thousands of people visit the islands annually.


The archipelago is made up of 48 islands and large rock formations. Most of these sites are excellent for snorkeling, drift diving, wall diving and night diving.

The Galapagos Islands enjoy a dry tropical climate and are not excessively hot. However, there are two distinct seasons: January to May, a warmer season with some rain (73 to 86°F), and June to September, cooler, but quite dry (66 to 68°F).

Fauna is unique in the national park and each island has its specific wildlife. The archipelago is home to about 58 species of birds, 28 of which are endemic, as well as unique varieties of reptiles, including giant tortoises, land iguanas and marine iguanas.

Underwater fauna, protected by the Galapagos marine reserve, is also exceptionally diverse and includes, besides marine iguanas, almost 300 species of fish (including Galapagos sharks), small mammals (Galapagos sea lions, Galapagos fur seals) and cetaceans (humpback whales, especially).

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By the way, if you would like to read about my own trip to the Galapagos, you are very welcome to do so!

MEDICINA: TEXTO ESPAÑOL

El cáncer es el nombre común que recibe un conjunto de enfermedades relacionadas en las que se observa un proceso descontrolado en la división de las células del cuerpo. Puede comenzar de manera localizada y diseminarse a otros tejidos circundantes. En general conduce a la muerte del paciente si este no recibe tratamiento adecuado. Se conocen más de cien tipos diferentes de cáncer. Los más comunes son: de piel, de pulmón, de mama y colorrectal.

El cáncer se menciona en documentos históricos muy antiguos, entre ellos papiros egipcios del año 1600 a. C. que hacen una descripción de la enfermedad. El cáncer es el resultado de dos procesos sucesivos: la proliferación de un grupo de células, denominado tumor o neoplasia, y la capacidad invasiva que les permite colonizar y proliferar en otros tejidos u órganos, proceso conocido como metástasis.

La malignidad del cáncer es variable, según la agresividad de sus células y demás características biológicas de cada tipo tumoral. En general, el comportamiento de las células cancerosas se caracteriza por carecer del control reproductivo que requiere su función original, perdiendo sus características primitivas y adquiriendo otras que no les corresponden, como la capacidad de invadir de forma progresiva y por distintas vías a órganos próximos (metástasis), con crecimiento y división más allá de los límites normales del órgano, diseminándose por el organismo fundamentalmente a través del sistema linfático o el sistema circulatorio, y ocasionando el crecimiento de nuevos tumores en otras partes del cuerpo alejadas de la localización original.

Las diferencias entre tumores benignos y malignos consisten en que los primeros son de crecimiento lento, no se propagan a otros tejidos y rara vez recidivan tras ser extirpados, mientras que los segundos son de crecimiento rápido, se propagan a otros tejidos, recidivan con frecuencia tras ser extirpados y provocan la muerte en un periodo variable de tiempo, si no se realiza tratamiento. Los tumores malignos tienen repercusiones graves, puesto que estas células consumen los nutrientes que necesitan otros órganos. Estas masas cancerosas cada vez mayores consumen nutrientes y energía. Mientras crece un tumor, este crea vasos sanguíneos (angiogénesis) para alimentarse, ya que requiere energía, de modo que “mata de hambre” a los órganos que lo rodean. Los tumores benignos pueden recurrir localmente en ciertos casos, pero no suelen dar metástasis a distancia ni matar al portador, con algunas excepciones. Las células normales al entrar en contacto con las células vecinas inhiben su multiplicación, pero las células malignas no tienen este freno. La mayoría de los cánceres forman tumores sólidos, pero algunos no, por ejemplo la leucemia.

El cáncer puede afectar a personas de todas las edades, incluso a fetos, pero el riesgo de sufrir los más comunes se incrementa con la edad. El cáncer causa cerca del 13 % de todas las muertes. De acuerdo con la Sociedad Americana Contra el Cáncer, 7,6 millones de personas murieron por esta enfermedad en el mundo durante el año 2007.

487 palabras

 

MEDICINE: ENGLISH TEXT (UK spelling)

Cancer is the common name we refer to when talking about a number of related illnesses in which there is an uncontrolled division of cells in the body. It can begin in one area and spread to surrounding tissue. In general, cancer will kill a patient if he does not receive proper treatment. There are more than one hundred different types of cancer. The most common ones are skin cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and bowel cancer.

Cancer is mentioned in very ancient historical documents, including Egyptian papyruses from 1600 B.C., which describe the disease. It is the result of two successive processes: the rapid increase of a group of cells, called a tumour or neoplasia, and their invasive ability, enabling them to multiply and spread to other tissues or organs, a process known as metathesis.


Cancer malignancy varies according to the aggressiveness of its cells and other biological characteristics of each type of tumour. In general, the behaviour of a cancerous cell is marked by a lack of reproductive control. Although it requires its original function, it loses its primitive characteristics and acquires others that are quite different, such as the ability to invade neighbouring organs progressively and in different ways (metathesis), growing and dividing beyond the normal limits of the organ, spreading through the organ basically via the lymphatic or circulatory systems, and causing the growth of new tumours in other parts of the body far away from their original location.

The difference between benign and malignant tumours is that benign ones grow slowly, do not spread to other tissues and rarely reappear after being surgically removed. Conversely, malignant ones grow rapidly, spread to other tissue, reappear frequently after being removed surgically and cause death over a variable period of time, if they are not treated. Malignant tumours have serious consequences, because these cells consume nutrients that other organs need. These ever-increasing cancerous masses require nutrients and energy. As a tumour grows, it creates blood vessels (angiogenesis) to feed itself, now that it needs energy, in such a way that it “starves” the organs that surround it. Benign tumours can reappear locally in certain cases, but do not tend to lead to metatheses in other, remote areas, nor do they kill their carrier, with a few exceptions. When normal cells come into contact with neighbouring cells, they prevent them from multiplying, but malignant cells are unable to stop multiplying. Most cancers form solid tumours, but some do not, such as leukaemia.

Cancer can affect people of all ages, even foetuses, but the risk of suffering from this illness increases with age. Cancer is the cause of about 13% of all deaths. According to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died of this illness worldwide in 2007.


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